ARDIG: Antibiotic Resistance Dynamics: the influence of geographic origin and management systems on resistance gene flows within humans, animals and the environment.

Start: 1 January 2018
Duration: 3 Years
Domain: Antimicrobial Resistance
Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance, plasmid ecology, superbugs, genomic diversity, regional clusters
Contact: Muna Anjum (APHA)

The Project #ARDIG

The ARDIG project examines the dynamics of AMR in the human, animal, food and environment epidemiological unit from 6 European countries (UK, Norway, France, Netherlands, Germany, Spain), which represent significant difference in their usage of antimicrobial agents and AMR prevalence, as well as different climate and management systems, and the potential for transmission of resistance.

The project explores the ecological impact of administration of antibiotics to humans and animals, and their environment, across six countries using a One Health approach. This will provide a better understanding of the types of resistances, their prevalence and variation in different populations over time, so the occurrence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) superbugs can be controlled. Moreover,  the work will help overcome the immense limitations in comparability between data from the different sectors and countries, as highlighted in the JIACRA-report.

It is expected that the results will help identify factors influencing the transmission of AMR between animals, humans, food and the environment which can be applied not only to provide a basis to improve existing national surveillances, but also to aid in the design of new or improved global AMR surveillances strategies, as well as risk and transmission models for assessing future control measures and mitigation of risk posed by AMR. The knowledge gathered can also serve, in the future, for development of novel targeted diagnostic applications for rapid surveillance and control.


Storey, N., Cawthraw, S., Turner, O., Rambaldi, M., Lemma, F., Horton, R., Randall, L., Duggett, N. A., AbuOun, M., Martelli, F., & Anjum, M. F. (2022). Use of genomics to explore AMR persistence in an outdoor pig farm with low antimicrobial usage. Microbial genomics. 8(3), 000782. DOI:

Thomson, N. M., Gilroy, R., Getino, M., Foster-Nyarko, E., van Vliet, A, H, M., La Ragione, R. M., & Pallen, M. J. (2022). Remarkable genomic diversity among Escherichia isolates recovered from healthy chickens. Peer J. 10, e12935. DOI:

Savin, M., Bierbaum, G., Kreyenschmidt, J., Sib, E., Schmoger, S., Käsbohrer, A., Hammerl, J-A. (2021). Clinically Relevant Escherichia coli Isolates from Process Waters and Wastewater of Poultry and Pig Slaughterhouses in Germany. Microorganisms. 9, 698. DOI:

Juraschek, K., Borowiak, M., Tausch, SH., Malorny, B., Käsbohrer, A., Otani, S., Schwarz, S., Meemken, D., Deneke, C., Hammerl, JA. (2021). Outcome of Different Sequencing and Assembly Approaches on the Detection of Plasmids and Localization of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Commensal Escherichia coli. Microorganisms. 9, 598. DOI:

Brouwer, MSM.,  Goodman, RN., Kant, A., Mevius, D., Newire, E., Roberts, AP., Veldman, KT. (2020). Mobile colistin resistance gene mcr-1 detected on an IncI1 plasmid in Escherichia coli from meat. Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance. 23, 145-148. DOI:

Duggett, N., AbuOun, M., Randall, L., Horton, R., Lemma, F., Rogers, J., Crook, D., Teale, C., Anjum, MF. (2020). The importance of using whole genome sequencing and extended spectrum beta-lactamase selective media when monitoring antimicrobial resistance. Scientific Reports. 10, 19880. DOI:

Massot, M., Haenni, M., Nguyen, TT., Madec, JY., Mentré, F., Denamur, E. (2020). Temporal dynamics of the fecal microbiota in veal calves in a 6-month field trial. Animal Microbiome. 2(32). DOI:

Rodriguez-Rubio, L., Serna, C., Ares-Arroyo, M., Matamoros, BR., Delgado-Blas, JF., Montero, N., Bernabe-Balas, C., Wedel, EF., Mendez, IS., Muniesa, M., Gonzalez-Zorn, B. (2020). Extensive antimicrobial resistance mobilization via multicopy plasmid encapsidation mediated by temperate phages. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 75 (11), pp. 3173–3180. DOI:

Patiño-Navarrete, R., Rosinski-Chupin, I., Cabanel, N., Gauthier, L., Takissian, J., Madec, JY., Hamze, M., Bonnin, RA., Naas, T., Glaser, P. (2020). Stepwise evolution and convergent recombination underlie the global dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli. Genome Medicine, 12(10). DOI:

Gay, E., Bour, M., Cazeau, G., Jarrige, N., Martineau, C., Madec, JY., Haenni, M. (2019). Antimicrobial Usages and Antimicrobial Resistance in Commensal Escherichia coli From Veal Calves in France: Evolution During the Fattening Process. Frontiers in Microbiology, 10, pp. 792. DOI:

Mesa Varona, O., Chaintarli, K., Muller-Pebody, B., Anjum, MF., Eckmanns, T., Norström, M., Boone, I. (2019). Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance and Drug Usage in the Human and Livestock Sector and Foodborne Antimicrobial Resistance in Six European Countries. Dovepress, 13, pp 957—993. DOI:

Brouwer, MSM., Jurburg, SD., Harders, F., Kant, A., Mevius, DJ., Roberts, AP., Bossers, A. (2019). The shufflon of IncI1 plasmids is rearranged constantly during different growth conditions. Plasmid, 120, pp. 51-55. DOI:

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