25 Rue du Docteur Roux, Paris 15e Arrondissement, Île-de-France, France

Seestraße 10, Berlin, Berlin, Germany

Droevendaalsesteeg 6708, Wageningen, Gelderland, The Netherlands

Madrid, Spain

Waterloo Road, London Borough of Lambeth, England, United Kingdom

14 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, Maisons-Alfort, Île-de-France, France

Ullevålsveien 68, Oslo, Oslo, Norway

Max-Dohrn-Straße 8, Berlin, Berlin, Germany

Daphne Jackson Road, Guildford, England, United Kingdom

Addlestone, England, United Kingdom

OHEJP Ardig project logo

The Project #ARDIG

Start: 1 January 2018
Duration: 3.5 Years
Domain: Antimicrobial Resistance
Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance, plasmid ecology, superbugs, genomic diversity, regional clusters
Contact: Muna Anjum (APHA) Principal Investigator

ARDIG: Antibiotic Resistance Dynamics: the influence of geographic origin and management systems on resistance gene flows within humans, animals and the environment.

The ARDIG project examined the dynamics of AMR in the human, animal, food and environment epidemiological unit from 6 European countries (UK, Norway, France, Netherlands, Germany, Spain), which represent significant differences in their usage of antimicrobial agents and AMR prevalence, as well as different climate and management systems, and the potential for transmission of resistance.

The project explored the ecological impact of administration of antibiotics to humans and animals, and their environment, across six countries using a One Health approach. This has provided a better understanding of the types of resistances, their prevalence and variation in different populations over time, so the occurrence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) superbugs can be controlled. Moreover, the work helps to overcome the immense limitations in comparability between data from the different sectors and countries, as highlighted in the JIACRA-report.

Project results help to identify factors influencing the transmission of AMR between animals, humans, food and the environment which can be applied not only to provide a basis to improve existing national surveillances, but also to aid in the design of new or improved global AMR surveillances strategies, as well as risk and transmission models for assessing future control measures and mitigation of risk posed by AMR. The knowledge gathered can also serve, in the future, for application of genomic surveillance and development of rapid targeted molecular diagnostics for control of AMR.

The Project Impact Brochure is available on Zenodo.

Project Assets

Nunez-Garcia, J., AbuOun, M., Storey, N., Brouwer, M. S., Delgado‑Blas, J. F., Mo, S. S., Ellaby, N., Veldman, K. T., Haenni, M., Châtre, P., Madec, J. Y., Hammerl, J. A., Serna, C., Getino, M., La Ragione, R., Naas, T., Telke, A. A., Glaser, P., Sunde, M., Gonzalez-Zorn, B., Ellington, M. J. & Anjum, M. F. (2022). Harmonisation of in-silico next-generation sequencing based methods for diagnostics and surveillance.  Scientific Reports. 12, 14372. DOI:

Getino, M., López-Díaz, M., Ellaby, N., Clark, J., Ellington, M. J., La Ragione, R. M. (2022). A Broad-Host-Range Plasmid Outbreak: Dynamics of IncL/M Plasmids Transferring Carbapenemase Genes. Antibiotics. 11(11), 1641. DOI:

Storey, N., Cawthraw, S., Turner, O., Rambaldi, M., Lemma, F., Horton, R., Randall, L., Duggett, N. A., AbuOun, M., Martelli, F., & Anjum, M. F. (2022). Use of genomics to explore AMR persistence in an outdoor pig farm with low antimicrobial usage. Microbial genomics. 8(3), 000782. DOI:

Thomson, N. M., Gilroy, R., Getino, M., Foster-Nyarko, E., van Vliet, A, H, M., La Ragione, R. M., & Pallen, M. J. (2022). Remarkable genomic diversity among Escherichia isolates recovered from healthy chickens. Peer J. 10, e12935. DOI:

Savin, M., Bierbaum, G., Kreyenschmidt, J., Sib, E., Schmoger, S., Käsbohrer, A., Hammerl, J-A. (2021). Clinically Relevant Escherichia coli Isolates from Process Waters and Wastewater of Poultry and Pig Slaughterhouses in Germany. Microorganisms. 9, 698. DOI:

Juraschek, K., Borowiak, M., Tausch, SH., Malorny, B., Käsbohrer, A., Otani, S., Schwarz, S., Meemken, D., Deneke, C., Hammerl, JA. (2021). Outcome of Different Sequencing and Assembly Approaches on the Detection of Plasmids and Localization of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Commensal Escherichia coli. Microorganisms. 9, 598. DOI:

Mesa-Varona, O., Mader, R., Velasova, M., Madec, J.Y., Granier, S.A., Perrin-Guyomard, A., Norstrom, M., Kaspar, H., Grobbel, M., Jouy, E., Anjum, M.F., Tenhagen, B.A. (2021). Comparison of Phenotypical Antimicrobial Resistance between Clinical and Non-Clinical E. coli Isolates from Broilers, Turkeys and Calves in Four European Countries. Microorganisms. 9(4):678. DOI:

Brouwer, MSM.,  Goodman, RN., Kant, A., Mevius, D., Newire, E., Roberts, AP., Veldman, KT. (2020). Mobile colistin resistance gene mcr-1 detected on an IncI1 plasmid in Escherichia coli from meat. Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance. 23, 145-148. DOI:

Duggett, N., AbuOun, M., Randall, L., Horton, R., Lemma, F., Rogers, J., Crook, D., Teale, C., Anjum, MF. (2020). The importance of using whole genome sequencing and extended spectrum beta-lactamase selective media when monitoring antimicrobial resistance. Scientific Reports. 10, 19880. DOI:

Massot, M., Haenni, M., Nguyen, TT., Madec, JY., Mentré, F., Denamur, E. (2020). Temporal dynamics of the fecal microbiota in veal calves in a 6-month field trial. Animal Microbiome. 2(32). DOI:

Rodriguez-Rubio, L., Serna, C., Ares-Arroyo, M., Matamoros, BR., Delgado-Blas, JF., Montero, N., Bernabe-Balas, C., Wedel, EF., Mendez, IS., Muniesa, M., Gonzalez-Zorn, B. (2020). Extensive antimicrobial resistance mobilization via multicopy plasmid encapsidation mediated by temperate phages. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 75 (11), pp. 3173–3180. DOI:

Patiño-Navarrete, R., Rosinski-Chupin, I., Cabanel, N., Gauthier, L., Takissian, J., Madec, JY., Hamze, M., Bonnin, RA., Naas, T., Glaser, P. (2020). Stepwise evolution and convergent recombination underlie the global dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli. Genome Medicine, 12(10). DOI:

Mesa-Varona, O., Kaspar, H., Grobbel, M., Tenhagen, B.A. (2020). Phenotypical antimicrobial resistance data of clinical and non-clinical Escherichia coli from poultry in Germany between 2014 and 2017. PLoS One. 15(12):e0243772. DOI:

Gay, E., Bour, M., Cazeau, G., Jarrige, N., Martineau, C., Madec, JY., Haenni, M. (2019). Antimicrobial Usages and Antimicrobial Resistance in Commensal Escherichia coli From Veal Calves in France: Evolution During the Fattening Process. Frontiers in Microbiology, 10, pp. 792. DOI:

Mesa Varona, O., Chaintarli, K., Muller-Pebody, B., Anjum, MF., Eckmanns, T., Norström, M., Boone, I. (2019). Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance and Drug Usage in the Human and Livestock Sector and Foodborne Antimicrobial Resistance in Six European Countries. Dovepress, 13, pp 957—993. DOI:

Brouwer, MSM., Jurburg, SD., Harders, F., Kant, A., Mevius, DJ., Roberts, AP., Bossers, A. (2019). The shufflon of IncI1 plasmids is rearranged constantly during different growth conditions. Plasmid, 120, pp. 51-55. DOI:


Project Events

ARDIG Annual Meeting – 24th May 2019

Workshop: Harmonisation of in-silico next-generation sequencing-based methods for diagnosis and surveillance – 21st-22nd October 2019, APHA, UK

Online Workshop: Potential recommendations for future monitoring of AMR and AMU in a One-Health context – 1st-2nd March 2021

Project Impact Brochure



Log in with your credentials

Forgot your details?