IMPARTImproving phenotypic Antimicrobial Resistance Testing by development of sensitive screening assays for emerging resistances, and setting missing ECOFFs.

Start: 1 January 2018
Duration: 2 Years
Domain: Antimicrobial Resistance 
Keywords: Colistin, Carbapenemase, ECOFF, AMR surveillance, AST interpretation, Clostridium difficile
Contact: Kees Veldman (WUR)

The Project #IMPART

IMPART consists of four topics related to the development and harmonization of phenotypic methods for detection of antimicrobial resistance, in line with the Commission’s Action Plan Against the rising threats from Antimicrobial Resistance: Road Map (updated on November 2016):

  1.  selective isolation and detection of colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae,
  2. selective isolation and detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae,
  3. development of a standardized disk diffusion method for susceptibility testing of Clostridium difficile,
  4. setting ECOFFs for specific pathogen/antibiotic combinations.

This project will result in a validated and sensitive method to detect colistin-resistant (carrying mcr) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in caecal samples from animals and in food. This is essential for the monitoring of the current prevalence and spread of bacteria carrying these emerging resistance genes in animals and the risk of transmission of these genes via food. Additionally, in order to provide a suitable and cost-effective method for antimicrobial resistance surveillance of the zoonotic pathogen C. difficile, a disk diffusion method will be developed and standardized for a broad range of antimicrobials. The generated distributions of inhibition zone diameter will support future work on setting epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs). Furthermore, the setting of ECOFFs for veterinary pathogens will highly improve harmonization of monitoring of resistance in animal pathogens and support the process for defining animal species specific clinical breakpoints for veterinary antimicrobials which will ultimately lead to more effective and prudent use of antimicrobials in animals.


Veldman, K., Slettemeås, JS., Granier, S., Perrin-Guyomard, A., Hechard, T., Dierikx, C., Maurischat, S. (2020) .IMPART: an update of the study. Poster presented at: One Health EJP Annual Scientific Meeting; 2020. DOI:

Veldman, K., Slettemeås, JS., Grobbel, M., Börjesson, S., Dors, A., Franco, A., Haenni, M., Turner, O., Broens, E. (2020). Susceptibility testing of veterinary pathogenic bacteria as a first step in setting new epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs). Poster presented at: One Health EJP Annual Scientific Meeting; 2020. DOI:

Slettemeås, JS., Norström, M., Divon, H., Ilag, HK., Granier, S., Perrin-Guyomard, A., Haenni, M., Veldman, K., Hammerum, A., Börjesson, S., Kjeldgaard, JS., Irrgang, A., Dierikx, C., Randall, L., Smialowska, A., Franco, A. (2020). A multicenter study examining different culturing methods to detect carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Poster presented at: One Health EJP Annual Scientific Meeting; 2020. DOI:

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