IMPARTImproving phenotypic Antimicrobial Resistance Testing by development of sensitive screening assays for emerging resistances, and setting missing ECOFFs.

Start: 1 January 2018
Duration: 2 Years
Domain: Antimicrobial Resistance 
Keywords: Colistin, Carbapenemase, ECOFF, AMR surveillance, AST interpretation, Clostridium difficile
Contact: Kees Veldman (WUR)

The Project #IMPART

IMPART consists of four topics related to the development and harmonization of phenotypic methods for detection of antimicrobial resistance, in line with the Commission’s Action Plan Against the rising threats from Antimicrobial Resistance: Road Map (updated on November 2016):

  1.  selective isolation and detection of colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae,
  2. selective isolation and detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae,
  3. development of a standardized disk diffusion method for susceptibility testing of Clostridium difficile,
  4. setting ECOFFs for specific pathogen/antibiotic combinations.

This project will result in a validated and sensitive method to detect colistin-resistant (carrying mcr) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in caecal samples from animals and in food. This is essential for the monitoring of the current prevalence and spread of bacteria carrying these emerging resistance genes in animals and the risk of transmission of these genes via food. Additionally, in order to provide a suitable and cost-effective method for antimicrobial resistance surveillance of the zoonotic pathogen C. difficile, a disk diffusion method will be developed and standardized for a broad range of antimicrobials. The generated distributions of inhibition zone diameter will support future work on setting epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs). Furthermore, the setting of ECOFFs for veterinary pathogens will highly improve harmonization of monitoring of resistance in animal pathogens and support the process for defining animal species specific clinical breakpoints for veterinary antimicrobials which will ultimately lead to more effective and prudent use of antimicrobials in animals.


Perrin-Guyomard, A., Granier, S.A., Slettemeås, J.S., Anjum, M., Randall, L., AbuOun, M., Pauly, N., Irrgang, A., Hammerl, J.A., Kjeldgaard, J.S., Hammerum, A., Franco, A., Skarżyńska, M., Kamińska, E., Wasyl, D., Dierikx, C., Börjesson, S., Geurts, Y., Haenni, M. and Veldman, K. (2022). Multicentre evaluation of a selective isolation protocol for detection of mcr-positive E. coli and Salmonella spp. in food-producing animals and meat. Letters in Applied Microbiology. Early view. DOI:

Dierikx C., Börjesson S., Perrin-Guyomard A., Haenni M., Norström M., Divon H. H., Ilag H. K., Granier S. A., Hammerum A., Sejer Kjeldgaard J., Pauly N., Randall L., Anjum M. F., Smialowska A., Franco A., Veldman K., Schau Slettemeås J. (2022). A European multicenter evaluation study to investigate the performance on commercially available selective agar plates for the detection of carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 193:106418 DOI:

Pauly, N., Klaar, Y., Skladnikiewicz-Ziemer, T., Juraschek, K., Grobbel, M., Hammerl, JA., Hemmers, L., Käsbohrer, A., Schwarz, S., Meemken, D., Tenhagen, B-A., Irrgang, A. (2021). Isolation Procedure for CP E. coli from Caeca Samples under Review towards an Increased Sensitivity. Microorganisms. 9, 1105. DOI:

Pauly, N., Hammerl, JA., Grobbel, M., Käsbohrer, A., Tenhagen, BA., Malorny, B., Schwarz, S., Meemken, D., Irrgang, A. (2020). Identification of a blaVIM-1-Carrying IncA/C2 Multiresistance Plasmid in an Escherichia coli Isolate Recovered from the German Food Chain. Microorganisms. 9, 29. DOI:

Pauly, N., Hammerl, JA., Schwarz, S., Grobbel, M., Meemken, D., Malorny, B., Tenhagen, BA., Käsbohrer, A., Irrgang, A. (2020). Co-occurrence of the blaVIM-1 and blaSHV-12 genes on an IncHI2 plasmid of an Escherichia coli isolate recovered from German livestock. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 76(2), 531–533. DOI: 

Diaconu, EL., Carfora, V., Alba, P., Di Matteo, P., Stravino, F., Buccella, C., Dell’Aira, E., Onorati, R., Sorbara, L., Battisti, A., Franco, A. (2020). Novel IncFII plasmid harbouring blaNDM-4 in a carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli of pig origin, Italy. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 75(12), 3475–3479. DOI:

Irrgang, A., Tausch SH., Pauly, N., Grobbel, M., Kaesbohrer, A,. Hammerl, JA. (2020). First Detection of GES-5-Producing Escherichia coli from Livestock—An Increasing Diversity of Carbapenemases Recognized from German Pig Production. Microorganisms. 8 (10), 159. DOI:

Pauly, N., Hammerl, JA., Grobbel, M., Tenhagen, BA., Käsbohrer, A., Bisenius, S., Fuchs, J., Horlacher, S., Lingstädt, H., Mauermann, U., Mitro, S., Müller, M., Rohrmann, S., Schiffmann, AP., Stührenberg, B., Zimmermann, P., Schwarz, S., Meemken, D., Irrgang, A. (2020). ChromID® CARBA Agar Fails to Detect Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae With Slightly Reduced Susceptibility to Carbapenems. Frontiers in Microbiology. 11, 1678. DOI:

Irrgang, A., Pauly, N., Tenhagen, BA., Grobbel, M., Kaesbohrer, A., Hammerl, JA. (2020). Spill-Over from Public Health? First Detection of an OXA-48-Producing Escherichia coli in a German Pig Farm. Microorganisms. 8(6), 855. DOI:

Veldman, K., Slettemeås, JS., Granier, S., Perrin-Guyomard, A., Hechard, T., Dierikx, C., Maurischat, S. (2020) .IMPART: an update of the study. Poster presented at: One Health EJP Annual Scientific Meeting; 2020. DOI:

Veldman, K., Slettemeås, JS., Grobbel, M., Börjesson, S., Dors, A., Franco, A., Haenni, M., Turner, O., Broens, E. (2020). Susceptibility testing of veterinary pathogenic bacteria as a first step in setting new epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs). Poster presented at: One Health EJP Annual Scientific Meeting; 2020. DOI:

Slettemeås, JS., Norström, M., Divon, H., Ilag, HK., Granier, S., Perrin-Guyomard, A., Haenni, M., Veldman, K., Hammerum, A., Börjesson, S., Kjeldgaard, JS., Irrgang, A., Dierikx, C., Randall, L., Smialowska, A., Franco, A. (2020). A multicenter study examining different culturing methods to detect carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Poster presented at: One Health EJP Annual Scientific Meeting; 2020. DOI:

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