TOXOSOURCES: Toxoplasma gondii sources quantified

Start: 1 January 2020
Duration: 2.5 Years
Domain: Foodborne Zoonoses
Key Words: parasitology, source attribution, transmission, Toxoplasma gondii, toxoplasmosis
Contact: Pikka Jokelainen (SSI)


TOXOSOURCES is a unique international collaboration with optimal complementary expertise on the zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii at the interface of humans, animals, food, and environment.

The TOXOSOURCES project will address the research question – What are the relative contributions of the different sources of T. gondii infection? – using several multidisciplinary approaches and novel and improved methods to yield the most robust estimates possible that can inform risk management and policy makers.

The main outcomes of TOXOSOURCES are quantitative estimates of the contribution of the main sources and transmission routes of T. gondii infection based on improved source attribution models, new data filling the key knowledge gap about the role of increasingly popular but unstudied ready-to-eat (RTE) fresh produce, a novel serological method that aims to specifically detect infections caused by oocysts, and a novel typing method to improve preparedness to detect introduction of atypical T. gondii strains by import and to trace the infection sources in outbreaks.

All the results are integrated to contribute to developing efficient interventions at national, regional, European and global levels. TOXOSOURCES will have immediate and long-term societal impact, and has potential, ability and ambition to advance science.


Klein, S., Stern, D., Seeber, F. Expression of in vivo biotinylated recombinant antigens SAG1 and SAG2A from Toxoplasma gondii for improved seroepidemiological bead-based multiplex assays. (2020). BMC Biotechnology. 2053. DOI:

Fernández-Escobar, M., Calero-Bernal, R., Benavides, J., Regidor-Cerrillo, J., Guerrero-Molina, M. C., Gutiérrez-Expósito, D., Collantes-Fernández, E., Ortega-Mora, L. M. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in Spanish sheep flocks. (2020). Parasites and Vectors. DOI:

Fabian, B. T., Hedar, F., Koethe, M., Bangoura, B., Maksimov, P., Conraths, F. J., Villena, I., Aubert, D., Seeber, F., Schares, G. Fluorescent bead-based serological detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens. (2020). Parasites and Vectors. DOI:


OpenAIRE Publications

Project Events

TOXOSOURCES Kick-off meeting- 3rd-4th February 2020

One Health EJP Project Kick-off meeting- 13th November 2019, Berlin, Germany